Portuguese Timor (1942-1945) They demanded an agreement not to make a separate peace with the Central Powers, equal status at the future peace conference, Russian military assistance against Bulgaria, an Allied offensive in the direction of Bulgaria, and the regular shipment of Allied war supplies. Only when the mists have cleared and the main issues have been decided can the belligerents afford to weigh each section of a campaign in a just scale. Within days of the invasion, Romanian authorities staged a pogrom against the Jewish population in … Alexandru Marghiloman became the new German-sponsored prime minister. On the contrary, it weakened the anti-German coalition.  Her Flotilla briefly remained without a minelaying submarine, until UC-23 was commissioned in early December. Despite initial successes in Transylvania, after German divisions started aiding Austria-Hungary and Bulgaria, the Romanian forces (aided by Russia) suffered massive setbacks, and by the end of 1916 out of the territory of the Romanian Old Kingdom only Western Moldavia remained under the control of the Romanian and Russian armies. The Romanian army continued its retreat towards the Olt River while the cavalry tried to slow the German advance in order to give it time to organize a defensive line along the Olt. 68, Симеонов, Радослав, Величка Михайлова и Донка Василева. The Allies wanted Romania to join their side in order to cut rail communications between Germany and Turkey, and to cut off Germany's oil supplies. On 23 November, Mackensen's best troops crossed the Danube at two locations near Svishtov. The army corps became only a command body for tactical coordination. Romanian troops fought on all European fronts of the Dual Monarchy, some of them being distinguished, such as Hauptmann (Căpitan) Gheorghe Flondor and Leutnant (Locotenent) Emil Rebreanu. Monaco Siam (1917-1918), Kingdom of Hejaz (1916-1918) They also requisitioned two million tons of grain from Romanian farmers. Both Serbia and Bulgaria felt that the Treaty of Berlin should have awarded them more extensive territories at the Ottoman Empire’s expense.  According to some American military historians, Russia delayed approval of Romanian demands out of worries about Romanian territorial designs on Bessarabia, claimed by nationalist circles as a Romanian land. Bulgaria - Bulgaria - World War II: After World War II began, Bulgaria proclaimed neutrality. The plan (the so-called Flămânda Offensive) was to attack the Central Powers forces from the rear by crossing the Danube at Flămânda, while the front-line Romanian and Russian forces were supposed to launch an offensive southwards towards Cobadin and Kurtbunar. … Fierce fighting took place in the Battle of Râmnicu Sărat between 22 and 26 December, with Mackensen's forces entering the town on 27 December. Its final form ready in late May 1917, the operations plan for the Romanian front called for the mounting of a general offensive in the Focșani-Nămoloasa sector with a view to completely pin down all enemy forces there, annihilate the main enemy groups operating there (the German Ninth Army) and support the Kerensky Offensive. It stayed on the south side of the Danube river and headed towards Constanța. 834-835, România în anii primului război mondial, vol. Meanwhile, the German Chief of Staff, General Erich von Falkenhayn, had correctly reasoned that Romania would side with the Allies, and had made plans accordingly. Romania remained neutral when the war started, arguing that Austria-Hungary itself had started the war and, consequently, Romania was under no formal obligation to join it. We had done all that was possible, but found ourselves obliged to leave forces in the Dobrudja and Wallachia which we had been able to use on the Eastern and Western fronts and in Macedonia before Rumania came into the war. The re-organization pursued the reduction of the effectives of the "Operations Army" to parameters that suited the country's resources for waging a long campaign. Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic Fighting took place from August 1916 to December 1917 across most of present-day Romania, including Transylvania, which was part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire at the time, as well as in Southern Dobruja, which is currently part of Bulgaria. Paul von Hindenburg, Out of My Life, Vol. The response of the Romanian army in fact created the strongest blow to the Central Powers that was dealt in Eastern Europe in 1917..  This was probably caused by an encounter with the Romanian torpedo boat NMS Smeul, whose captain surprised a German submarine near Sulina in November 1916, the latter reportedly never returning to her base at Varna. Although the Romanian army made attempts to stop the advance of the German forces, such as in the Battle of Robănești, these were largely unsuccessful.. Bulgaria was further forced to pay reparations and limit its standing army, much in the sense of Versailles for … On the next day, this area was expanded, with 8 Bulgarian settlements ending up in Romanian hands. VIII, Държавна печатница, Sofia, 1939, Bodart, Gaston: "Erforschung der Menschenverluste Österreich-Ungarns im Weltkriege 1914–1918", Austrian State Archive, War Archive Vienna, Manuscripts, History of the First World War, in general, A 91. In October 1915, Romania's rival, Bulgaria, joined the Central Powers and, in unison with Germany, attacked Serbia. In Italy, in October 1918, Romanian prisoners of war from the Austro-Hungarian Army formed the Romanian Volunteer Legion from Italy [ro] (Legione Romena d'Italia), which joined the fighting during the last battles on the Italian front (Battle of Vittorio Veneto) and later, after the end of the war, participated in the Hungarian-Romanian War.  This army attacked north from Bulgaria, starting on September 1. The remaining Russo-Romanian forces in Dobruja abandoned Măcin on 4 January 1917 and Brăila on 5 January 1917. …7, 1918), settlement forced upon Romania after it had been defeated by the Central Powers during World War I. Belgium (1940), Greece (1940-1941)  Initially, the only opposing force was the Austro-Hungarian First Army, which was steadily pushed back toward Hungary. , In early July 1917, on the Romanian front, one of the largest concentrations of combat forces and war material assembled during World War I: nine armies, 80 infantry divisions with 974 battalions, 19 cavalry divisions with 550 squadrons and 923 artillery batteries, whose effectives amounted to some 800,000 men, with about one million in their immediate reserve. Haiti (1941-1945) In mid-November, after several tactical defeats in the Southern Carpathians (Bran-Câmpulung, Prahova Valley, Jiu Valley), Falkenhayn concentrated his best troops (the elite Alpenkorps) in the south for an attack on the Vulcan Pass. Bulgaria started the war with attack on Muntenia.Bulgaria started taking Romanian regions with no effort. 2, p. 834, România în anii primului război mondial, vol. Pursuing the offensive, the German troops aimed at occupying the whole of Moldavia, thereby knocking Romania out of the war, and, together with an in-depth penetration of the Austro-Hungarian troops on the front in Bukovina, to push the Russian forces eastwards, beyond Odessa. Haiti These events effectively ended Russian involvement in the war and left Romania isolated and surrounded by the Central Powers. El Salvador (1941-1945) Soviet Union (1939-1940) Romania entered the war at a time of strong crisis for the Entente, drawing upon itself numerous enemy forces, fighting on a very long battlefront and having to change its initial campaign plan permanently. Bulgaria was determined to observe it until the end of the war; but it hoped for bloodless territorial gains, aiming to recover the territories lost in the Second Balkan War and World War I, as well as gain other lands with a significant Bulgari… The German reserves consisted of the 115th infantry division and two brigades of cyclists. Latvia (1940) Guatemala (1941-1945) Bulgaria lost most of the territories gained in the First Balkan War, including the southern Dobrudja (to Romania), most of Macedonia, and Eastern Thrace (to the Ottomans). These materials were vital in keeping Germany in the war to the end of 1918.. Russian reinforcements under General Andrei Zaionchkovsky arrived to halt Mackensen's army before it cut the rail line that linked Constanța with Bucharest. On 7 September, under the Treaty of Craiova, Southern Dobruja (which Bulgaria had lost after the Romanian invasion during the Second Balkan War in 1913), was ceded to Bulgaria … The Russian Army was now both demoralized and nearly out of supplies. On 7 November, Romanian anti-aircraft defenses at Sulina (including the old protected cruiser NMS Elisabeta) shot down into the sea one of the seaplanes, killing the commander of the German squadron. At the outbreak of hostilities, the Austro-Hungarian Empire invoked a casus foederis on Romania and Italy linked to the secret treaty of alliance since 1883.  The Ottoman declaration took place either on 29 August, 30 August or 1 September. The Romanian Army gained much from its involvement in the Second World War. A separate Romanian offensive, carried out by the 1st Infantry Division, was much more limited in its aims and it succeeded: capturing the west bank of the Cerna River within the Banat region. Initially, the Romanians experienced success, taking a large number of prisoners, however Mackensen was able to shift forces to deal with the sudden assault and Falkenhayn's forces responded with attacks at every point. One of the young officers was the future Field Marshal Erwin Rommel. Serbo-Bulgarian War, (Nov. 14, 1885–March 3, 1886), military conflict between Serbia and Bulgaria, which demonstrated the instability of the Balkan peace settlement imposed by the Congress of Berlin (Treaty of Berlin, July 1878).. Under the pressure of the ultimatum, the Romanian government agreed to enter the war on the side of the Entente, although the situation on the battle fronts was not favorable. Romania (1941-1944) After the Romanian troops had managed to bring the enemy to a halt at Moldavia's Gates, on the Eastern Carpathians, the Siret River and the Danube Delta alignment in cooperation with Russian military forces, Romania embarked on the reconstruction and strengthening of its combat capability during the first half of 1917 through multiple national efforts under highly complex international circumstances. It imposed harsh conditions on the country, but recognized its union with Bessarabia.  It was a bold undertaking, using the entire reserves of the Romanian army, but it needed the cooperation of Russian divisions to contain Mackensen's offensive while the Romanian reserve struck the gap between Mackensen and Falkenhayn. Japan The Romanian campaign was one of the major campaigns of the First World War, in which the Romanian and Russian armies confronted the armies of the Central Powers. Eight days later, German troops attacked Sibiu, and on 29 September, the outnumbered Romanians began retreating to the Vulcan and Turnu Roșu Passes. In October 1915, Romania's rival, Bulgaria, joined the Central Powers and, in unison with Germany, attacked Serbia. , The salient created by the Romanian troops in the enemy lines at the junction between the Austro-Hungarian First Army and the German Ninth Army made the High Command of the Central Powers bring forces from other sectors on the Moldavian front and change the main direction of the offensive initially planned for the Focșani-Nămoloasa region. Czechoslovakia (1918-1919), Co-belligerents The territorial spoils were divided in the Treaty of Bucharest and the Treaty of Constantinople. Emirate of Nejd and Hasa There, a conspicuous figure was cut by Ecaterina Teodoroiu, who was to enter the consciousness of all Romanians as the "Heroine of the Jiu". The infantry divisions were ensured identical structure to make replacements and maneuvers easier on the battlefront and to have a fire power comparable with that of the enemy. Dervish state Nevertheless, eight divisions and an Alpine Corps were deployed under the command of Erich von Falkenhayn. Cuba (1941-1945) In August 1916, Romania received an ultimatum to decide whether to join the Entente "now or never". China (1917-1918) Bahrain F.A. Thanks to the earlier conquest of the Kingdom of Serbia and the ineffective Allied operations on the Greek border (the Salonica campaigns), and having a territorial interest in Dobruja, the Bulgarian Army and the Ottoman Army were willing to help fight the Romanians. The dates of the Bulgarian and Ottoman declarations of war are disputed. Romania's land was then divided among the Axis. This linkage of the Transylvanian issue with the Sino-Soviet conflict unnerved the Romanians and pressure from Moscow was stepped up in the same month when a plan to create an economic region encompassing much of the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic, half of Romania, and part of Bulgaria was launched in the Soviet capital. Mexico (1942-1945) While Carol wanted to enter World War I as an ally of the Central Powers, the Romanian public and the political parties were in favor of joining the Triple Entente. A similar gathering was held by the minority Hungarians in Cluj (Kolozsvár), on 22 December, where they reaffirmed their allegiance to Hungary. 833-834, România în anii primului război mondial, vol. Историко-библиографски справочник, Добрич 2006, с. Reports that 2% of Austro-Hungarian killed/wounded were incurred on the Eastern Front (including 10,594 out of 521,146 fatalities). On 28 November 1918, the Romanian representatives of Bukovina voted for union with the Kingdom of Romania, followed by the proclamation of a Union of Transylvania with Romania on 1 December 1918 by the National Assembly of Romanians of Transylvania and Hungary, gathered at Alba Iulia, while the representatives of the Transylvanian Saxons approved the act on 9 January 1919 at an assembly in Mediaș (Medgyes). In early June 1917, the Romanian army's strength grew to about 700,000 men, organized in 207 infantry battalions plus 60 march battalions, 110 cavalry squadrons and 245 artillery batteries, divided among two armies and five corps. Proclamation by King Ferdinand, 28 August 1916. The Romanian garrison surrendered on September 6 at the conclusion of the Battle of Turtucaia. Tsar Boris, however, appointed a new government under a notorious Germanophile, Bogdan Filov, and moved steadily closer to the German orbit. After several defensive victories in 1917 at Mărăști, Mărășești, and Oituz, with Russia's withdrawal from the war following the October Revolution, Romania, almost completely surrounded by the Central Powers, was also forced to drop out of the war. As such, the crown council took the decision to remain neutral.  Some of the 57 mm guns were converted into anti-aircraft guns using a carriage designed by the Romanian General Ștefan Burileanu. Romania had been pro-Allied during World War I, but sided with Germany for roughly the same reasons as Finland; the Soviet Union had annexed parts of Romania (Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina) in 1940. Within days of the invasion, Romanian authorities staged a pogrom against the Jewish population in the city of Iasi, the regional capital of Moldavia. , For 29 days, until 3 September, this sector was the scene of the most important battle fought by the Romanian army during the 1917 campaign. By the evening, the Romanian divisions had conquered the first defenses, the strongest and deepest of the defensive system of the Gerok Group of the Austro-Hungarian First Army) in the Mărăști area. Both Romania and Bulgaria are members of NATO. Our series on the history of the Cold War period continues with a documentary on the Sovietization of Bulgaria and Romania. The cavalry divisions received more machine guns. Reasons for the attack were lack of Bulgarian wars, Romanian attack on Indonesia and a rumor for new missions including kills against Natural enemy. Bulgaria succeeded in negotiating a recovery of Southern Dobruja, part of Romania since 1913, in the Axis-sponsored Treaty of Craiova on 7 September 1940, which reinforced Bulgarian hopes for solving territorial problems without direct involvement in the war. This view was brushed aside by Whitehall, and Thomson signed a Military Convention with Romania on 13 August 1916. Panama Ian Beckett says that Bulgaria did not issue a declaration of war prior to its attack of 31 August. 2, p. 835. And the staunch valor of the Roman legionaries still lived in the heroic band who, under Anastasiu, cut their way from Orsova to the Aluta.. For Romania, the highest priority was taking Transylvania from Hungary, with around 2,800,000 Romanians out of around 5,000,000 people. According to the terms of the treaty, Romania had to return southern Dobruja to Bulgaria, give Austria-Hungary control of the passes in the Carpathian Mountains, and lease its oil wells to… Read More; San Stefano. The Romanian ambassador in Vienna actually transmitted the declaration of war on 27 August. Monaco, Poland (1939) The Allies promised at least 200,000 soldiers to defend Romania against Bulgaria to the south, and help it invade Austria. Mark Axworthy, Cornel I. Scafeș, Cristian Crăciunoiu, Sondhaus, Lawrence (2000). It imposed harsh conditions on the country, but recognized its union with Bessarabia. In the Mărăști zone, however, the Romanian units continued the offensive until July 30 upon the request of their commander, General Alexandru Averescu. On the night of August 27, 1916, three Romanian armies (First, Second and Northern Army [ro]), deployed according to the Romanian campaign plan (Hypothesis Z), launched the Battle of Transylvania through the Carpathians. 2, p. 830, România în anii primului război mondial, vol.2, p. 831, Michael B. Barrett, Prelude to Blitzkrieg: The 1916 Austro-German Campaign in Romania, p. 295, România în anii primului război mondial, vol. Brazil (1942-1945)  According to British military historian John Keegan, before Romania entered the war, the Allies had secretly agreed not to honour the territorial expansion of Romania when the war ended. The Romanian forces could not withstand the new German attack which started on 1 November 1916. As such, they’re not allowed to attack each other; if they do, at least one of them would be forced to leave the alliance. The Red Army entered Bulgaria on 8 September 1944; Bulgaria declared war on Germany the next day. The shot down seaplane was of the Friedrichshafen FF.33 type, as these were the only German naval bombers on the Romanian front. There was already snow covering the mountains and soon operations would have to halt for the winter. Democratic Republic of Armenia The next day, pursuing the offensive, the Romanian troops forced the enemy into an ever more disorderly retreat. Mackensen's success was favoured by the failure of the Allies to fulfill the obligation they had assumed through the military convention, by virtue of which they had to mount an offensive on the Macedonian front and the conditions in which the Russians deployed insufficient troops on the battlefront in the south-east of Romania. On 10 November 1918, just one day before the German armistice and after all the other Central Powers had already capitulated, Romania re-entered the war after the successful Allied advances on the Macedonian front. Other notable Romanians who fought in the Austro-Hungarian Army included Oberleutnant (Locotenent-Major) and Imperial Adviser Constantin Isopescu-Grecul, as well as Octavian Codru Tăslăuanu, who also wrote valuable memoirs about his war experience. But in spite of the human, material and military efforts made by the Central Powers throughout this period, they failed to achieve their fundamental political and strategic goal to defeat Romania and knock it out of the war. In doing so, Romania's goal was to unite all the territories with a Romanian national majority into one state. That same month, German and Italian ambassadors demanded the return of northern Transylvania to Hungary. , Considerable progress was achieved with the technical-material equipment of the army by means of its provisioning with armament, ammunition and other combat resources from inside the country, but even more importantly from abroad. Colombia (1943-1945), Co-belligerents Britain made loans, France sent a military training mission, and Russia promised modern munitions. The 1916 counteroffensive was mainly led by the German generals Falkenhayn and Mackensen. The definitive cessation of the general offensive on the Romanian front by the Central Powers on 3 September 1917 marked a strategic defeat and a considerable weakening of their forces on the South-Eastern front. Montenegro (1914-1916) Romania and the Nazi-Soviet War, 1941–44. There, the Germans had massed large forces to beat their way south of the mountains. On 26 August, the Fatherland Front made the decision to incite an armed rebellion against the government, which … 390-395 and 870-873, "Military Casualties-World War-Estimated", Statistics Branch, GS, War Department, 25 February 1924; cited in. Although most Transylvanian Romanians were loyal to the Empire, over time, reactionary sentiments emerged, especially after Romania joined the war. The Romanian soldiers were supported everywhere by the civil population; during the Battle of Târgu Jiu, the town was defended by its inhabitants, men, women and children, young and old. As a result of these operations, the remaining Romanian territories remained unoccupied. San Marino, Austria-Hungary Vinogradov, V. N. "Romania in the First World War: The Years of Neutrality, 1914–1916", This page was last edited on 14 January 2021, at 14:54. Russian victories in Galicia in 1916, Allied promises of territory, and fear of Germany finally convinced Romania to join the war on the side of Britain, Russia, France, and Italy. Finland (1944-1945) The Romanian campaign plan (Hypothesis Z) consisted in attacking Austria-Hungary in Transylvania, while defending Southern Dobruja and Giurgiu from Bulgaria in the south. Franz Conrad von Hötzendorf: Architect of the Apocalypse p.192. Iran (1941) Russian victories in Galicia in 1916, Allied promises of territory, and fear of Germany finally convinced Romania to join the war on the side of Britain, Russia, France, and Italy. Estonia (1940) The parliament signed the treaty, however King Ferdinand refused to sign it, hoping for an Allied victory on the western front. 2, pp. In spite of our victory over the Rumanian Army, we were definitely weaker as regards the conduct of the war as a whole. Later that year, an Axis-backed Bulgaria was ceded Dobruja. On August 27, 1916, after Romania declares war on Austria-Hungary, formally entering World War I, Romanian troops cross the border of the Austro … , The failure of the Romanian front for the Entente was also the result of several factors beyond Romania's control. Thus everything seemed to depend on whether Rumania was ready to make any sort of use of her momentary advantage. Komancza Republic, Co-belligerents On 7 May 1918, in light of the existing politico-military situation, Romania was forced to conclude the Treaty of Bucharest with the Central Powers. Co-belligerents Bulgarian volunteersSerb rebels of Bosnia, Romania temporary exited: 9 December 1917, Italy (1915-1918)  On April 16th, Easter Monday, the Romanian torpedo boat NMS Smeul capsized in rough seas off the mouth of the Danube with the loss of 18 of her crew, including 3 French naval officers present on board.  The 332 gun carriages were produced in order to convert Romania's 53 mm and 57 mm Fahrpanzer fortress guns into field artillery. 2, p. 832, România în anii primului război mondial, vol. The Kingdom of Romania was ruled by kings of the House of Hohenzollern from 1866. In our moral energy and our valour lie the means of giving him back his birthright of a great and free Rumania from the Tisza to the Black Sea, and to prosper in peace in accordance with our customs and our hopes and dreams. Idrisid Emirate of Asir (1915-1918)  This proved to be a critical strain on Romania's ability to wage a successful offensive in Transylvania, as it needed to divert troops south to the defense of Dobruja. Honduras, Diplomatic only Lists of wars involving European countries, The United Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia (1859–1862), Romanian United Principalities (1862–1866), Socialist Republic of Romania (1965–1989), United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic, Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus, Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia became allies of Romania, Legionnaires' Rebellion and Bucharest Pogrom, Romania lost again Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina, to USSR, back to the border of 1940, President of the Presidium of the Great National Assembly, Romanian Anti-communist Resistance Movement, Escalation of sectarian insurgency after U.S. withdrawal, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_wars_involving_Romania&oldid=985325009, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Independence of Romania, Serbia and Montenegro from Ottoman Empire, Ukrainian state failed to stabilize, therefore USSR gained access to common border with Romania, Subsequent depletion of al-Qaeda in Iraq, improvements in public security, Iraqi insurgency persists. 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